Masques

Que dit la science et les professionnels de la santé?

« Pour les personnes qui ne présentent pas de symptômes respiratoires il n’est pas nécessaire de porter un masque car aucun élément n’indique que les masques protègent les personnes qui ne sont pas malades. Les gens peuvent cependant avoir l’habitude d’en porter dans certains pays. Si l’on utilise un masque, il convient de le porter, de le retirer et de l’éliminer de la manière recommandée et de se laver les mains après l’avoir ôté (voir plus loin les conseils relatifs au bon usage des masques). »

« …aucune donnée ne montre actuellement que le port du masque (médical ou d’un autre type) par les personnes en bonne santé dans les espaces collectifs, y compris s’il est généralisé, peut prévenir les infections par des virus respiratoires, dont celui de la COVID-19. »

« Wearing medical masks when not indicated may result in unnecessary costs and procurement burdens and create a false sense of security that can lead to the neglect of other essential measures, such as hand hygiene practices. A medical mask is not required for people who are not sick as there is no evidence of its usefulness in protecting them. »

Q&A / 31st March 2020
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« Does WHO recommend routine wearing of masks for healthy people during the 2019 nCoV outbreak? No. WHO does not recommend that asymptomatic individuals (i.e., who do not have respiratory syndromes) in the community should wear medical masks, as currently there is no evidence that routine use of medical masks by healthy individuals prevents 2019-nCoV transmission. »

«De nombreux pays ont recommandé au grand public de se couvrir le visage, notamment par un masque en tissu. À l’heure actuelle, on ne dispose pas encore de données factuelles directes de qualité attestant de l’efficacité du port généralisé du masque par les personnes en bonne santé dans la communauté et il faut procéder à un bilan des avantages et des inconvénients à cet égard. »

« Why should people wear masks ? Masks are a key measure to suppress transmission and save lives. »

« At present there is only limited and inconsistent scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of masking of healthy people in the community to prevent infection with respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. A large randomized community-based trial in which 4862 healthy participants were divided into a group wearing medical/surgical masks with a control group found no difference in infection with SARS-CoV-2. »

« Masks Are Neither Effective Nor Safe: A Summary Of The Science » Colleen Huber NMD, July 2020 https://www.primarydoctor.org/masks-not-effect

« A 2010 study found that surgical masks offered no protection at all against influenza (16). Another study found that surgical masks had about 85% penetration ratio of aerosolized inactivated influenza particles and about 90% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, although S aureus particles were about 6 times the diameter of influenza particles (17). »

Scientific references:

1 T Jefferson, M Jones, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. MedRxiv. 2020 Apr 7. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217v2

2 J Xiao, E Shiu, et al. Nonpharmaceutical measures for pandemic influenza in non-healthcare settings – personal protective and environmental measures. Centers for Disease Control. 26(5); 2020 May. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/5/19-0994_article

3 J Brainard, N Jones, et al. Facemasks and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as COVID19: A rapid systematic review. MedRxiv. 2020 Apr 1. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.01.20049528v1.full.pdf

4 L Radonovich M Simberkoff, et al. N95 respirators vs medical masks for preventing influenza among health care personnel: a randomized clinic trial. JAMA. 2019 Sep 3. 322(9): 824-833. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2749214

5 J Smith, C MacDougall. CMAJ. 2016 May 17. 188(8); 567-574. https://www.cmaj.ca/content/188/8/567 6 F bin-Reza, V Lopez, et al. The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. 2012 Jul;

6(4): 257-267. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779801/

7 J Jacobs, S Ohde, et al. Use of surgical face masks to reduce the incidence of the common cold among health care workers in Japan: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Infect Control. 2009 Jun; 37(5): 417-419. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19216002/

8 M Viola, B Peterson, et al. Face coverings, aerosol dispersion and mitigation of virus transmission risk. https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.10720, https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2005/2005.10720.pdf

9 S Grinshpun, H Haruta, et al. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particular respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration. J Occup Env Hygiene. 2009; 6(10):593-603. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15459620903120086

10 H Jung, J Kim, et al. Comparison of filtration efficiency and pressure drop in anti-yellow sand masks, quarantine masks, medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs. Aerosol Air Qual Res. 2013 Jun. 14:991-1002. https://aaqr.org/articles/aaqr-13-06-oa-0201.pdf

11 C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4) https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

12 N95 masks explained. https://www.honeywell.com/en-us/newsroom/news/2020/03/n95-masks-explained

13 V Offeddu, C Yung, et al. Effectiveness of masks and respirators against infections in healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Inf Dis. 65(11), 2017 Dec 1; 1934-1942. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/65/11/1934/4068747

14 C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aRsu9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

15 M Walker. Study casts doubt on N95 masks for the public. MedPage Today. 2020 May 20. https://www.medpagetoday.com/infectiousdisease/publichealth/86601

16 C MacIntyre, Q Wang, et al. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to Références scientifiques EN/FR 18 février 2021 / V01 4 medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza J. 2010 Dec 3. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00198.x?fbclid=IwAR3kRYVYDKb0aRsu9_me9_vY6a8KVR4HZ17J2A_80f_fXUABRQdhQlc8Wo

17 N Shimasaki, A Okaue, et al. Comparison of the filter efficiency of medical nonwoven fabrics against three different microbe aerosols. Biocontrol Sci. 2018; 23(2). 61-69. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/bio/23/2/23_61/_pdf/-char/en

18 T Tunevall. Postoperative wound infections and surgical face masks: A controlled study. World J Surg. 1991 May; 15: 383- 387. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01658736

19 N Orr. Is a mask necessary in the operating theatre? Ann Royal Coll Surg Eng 1981: 63: 390-392. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493952/pdf/annrcse01509-0009.pdf

20 N Mitchell, S Hunt. Surgical face masks in modern operating rooms – a costly and unnecessary ritual? J Hosp Infection. 18(3); 1991 Jul 1. 239-242. https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/0195-6701(91)90148-2/pdf

21 C DaZhou, P Sivathondan, et al. Unmasking the surgeons: the evidence base behind the use of facemasks in surgery. JR Soc Med. 2015 Jun; 108(6): 223-228. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480558/

22 L Brosseau, M Sietsema. Commentary: Masks for all for Covid-19 not based on sound data. U Minn Ctr Inf Dis Res Pol. 2020 Apr 1. https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2020/04/commentary-masks-all-covid-19-not-based-sound-data

23 N Leung, D Chu, et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks Nature Research. 2020 Mar 7. 26,676-680 (2020). https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-16836/v1

24 S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798. https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

25 S Bae, M Kim, et al. Effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in blocking SARS-CoV-2: A controlled comparison in 4 patients. Ann Int Med. 2020 Apr 6. https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-1342

26 S Rengasamy, B Eimer, et al. Simple respiratory protection – evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20-1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Oct; 54(7): 789-798. https://academic.oup.com/annweh/article/54/7/789/202744

27 C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4) https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577.long

28 W Kellogg. An experimental study of the efficacy of gauze face masks. Am J Pub Health. 1920. 34-42. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.10.1.34

29 M Klompas, C Morris, et al. Universal masking in hospitals in the Covid-19 era. N Eng J Med. 2020; 382 e63. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006372

30 E Person, C Lemercier et al. Effect of a surgical mask on six minute walking distance. Rev Mal Respir. 2018 Mar; 35(3):264-268. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29395560/

31 B Chandrasekaran, S Fernandes. Exercise with facemask; are we handling a devil’s sword – a physiological hypothesis. Med Hypothese. 2020 Jun 22. 144:110002. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32590322/

32 P Shuang Ye Tong, A Sugam Kale, et al. Respiratory consequences of N95-type mask usage in pregnant healthcare workers – A controlled clinical study. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2015 Nov 16; 4:48. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26579222/

33 T Kao, K Huang, et al. The physiological impact of wearing an N95 mask during hemodialysis as a precaution against SARS in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004 Aug; 103(8):624-628. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15340662/

34 F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods. 2018 Oct; 260:98-106. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

35 A Rule, O Apau, et al. Healthcare personnel exposure in an emergency department during influenza season. PLoS One. DOCUMENT MASQUES – Références scientifiques EN/FR 18 février 2021 / V01 5 2018 Aug 31; 13(8): e0203223. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30169507/

36 F Blachere, W Lindsley et al. Assessment of influenza virus exposure and recovery from contaminated surgical masks and N95 respirators. J Viro Methods. 2018 Oct; 260:98-106. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30029810/

37 A Chughtai, S Stelzer-Braid, et al. Contamination by respiratory viruses on our surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 3; 19(1): 491. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31159777/

38 L Zhiqing, C Yongyun, et al. J Orthop Translat. 2018 Jun 27; 14:57-62. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30035033/

39 C MacIntyre, H Seale, et al. A cluster randomized trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015; 5(4) https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e006577

40 A Beder, U Buyukkocak, et al. Preliminary report on surgical mask induced deoxygenation during major surgery. Neurocirugia. 2008; 19: 121-126. http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/neuro/v19n2/3.pdf

41 D Lukashev, B Klebanov, et al. Cutting edge: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and its activation-inducible short isoform negatively regulate functions of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15; 177(8) 4962-4965. https://www.jimmunol.org/content/177/8/4962

42 A Sant, A McMichael. Revealing the role of CD4+ T-cells in viral immunity. J Exper Med. 2012 Jun 30; 209(8):1391-1395. https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/3420330 2020 Independent Reviews of Available Science « Masks, false safety and real dangers, Part 1: Friable mask particulate and lung vulnerability »

« Prior research has overwhelmingly shown that there is no significant evidence of benefits of masks, particularly regarding transmission of viral infections, and that there are well-established risks. » « Masks, False safety and real dangers, Part 3: Hypoxia, hypercapnia and physiological effects »

« Wearing a mask causes physiological changes to multiple organ systems, including the brain, the heart, the lungs, the kidneys and the immune system. We examine changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in masked airspace that is available to the airways over the first 45 seconds of wear. »

« So far, most studies found little to no evidence for the effectiveness of cloth face masks in the general population, neither as personal protective equipment nor as a source control. »

« There is moderate certainty evidence that wearing a mask probably makes little or no difference to the outcome of laboratory-confirmed influenza compared to not wearing a mask (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.26; 6 trials; 3005 participants). Harms were rarely measured and poorly reported. DOCUMENT MASQUES – Références scientifiques EN/FR 18 février 2021 / V01 6 There is uncertainty about the effects of face masks. The low-moderate certainty of the evidence means our confidence in the effect estimate is limited, and that the true effect may be different from the observed estimate of the effect. The pooled results of randomised trials did not show a clear reduction in respiratory viral infection with the use of medical/surgical masks during seasonal influenza. There were no clear differences between the use of medical/surgical masks compared with N95/P2 respirators in healthcare workers when used in routine care to reduce respiratory viral infection. »

« We know that wearing a mask outside health care facilities offers little, if any, protection from infection. One might argue that fear and anxiety are better countered with data and education than with a marginally beneficial mask… »

« We did not find evidence that surgical-type face masks are effective in reducing laboratory-confirmed influenza transmission, either when worn by infected persons (source control) or by persons in the general community to reduce their susceptibility. »

« These results would suggest that the widespread use of face masks or coverings in the community do not provide any benefit. Indeed, there is even a suggestion that they may actually increase risk. »

« Among the samples collected without a face mask, we found that the majority of participants with influenza virus and coronavirus infection did not shed detectable virus in respiratory droplets or aerosols. The major limitation of our study was the large proportion of participants with undetectable viral shedding in exhaled breath for each of the viruses studied.”

« Growing evidence suggests that environmentally relevant elevations in CO2 (<5,000 ppm) may pose direct risks for human health. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations could make adverse exposures more frequent and prolonged through increases in indoor air concentrations and increased time spent indoors. We review preliminary evidence concerning the potential health risks of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant elevations in ambient CO2, including inflammation, reductions in higher-level cognitive abilities, bone demineralization, kidney calcification, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. This early evidence indicates potential health risks at CO2 exposures as low as 1,000 ppm—a threshold that is already exceeded in many indoor environments with increased room occupancy and reduced building ventilation rates, and equivalent to some estimates for urban outdoor air concentrations before 2100.”

  • 2020 Research article on the effects of masks “Corona children studies ‘Co-Ki’: First results of a Germany-wide registry on mouth and nose covering (mask) in children” https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-124394/v2

« The average wearing time of the mask was 270 minutes per day. Impairments caused by wearing the mask were reported by 68% of the parents. These included irritability (60%), headache (53%), difficulty concentrating (50%), less happiness (49%), reluctance to go to school/kindergarten (44%), malaise (42%) impaired learning (38%) and drowsiness or fatigue (37%). »

« The accumulation of moisture, during prolonged usage [of a facemask], may exacerbate this problem by increasing resistance to air flow through the filter itself. Moisture accumulation is also thought to facilitate the movement of contaminants through the material of the mask itself by capillary action. These bacteria can subsequently be dislodged by movement. Statistical analysis of the extracted data revealed no statistically significant association between mask usage and the incidence of surgical site infection.”

« As it is known that heat and moisture trapping occur beneath surgical masks, it seems reasonable that some of the exhaled CO2 may also be trapped beneath them, inducing a decrease in blood oxygenation. Surgical masks may impose some measurable airway resistance, but it seems doubtful if this significantly increases the process of breathing. Although it might have appeared to be likely that hypoxemia results from the increased CO2 content of the inspired air due to the exhaled CO2 getting trapped beneath the surgical face mask; there has been no controlled study concerning with the effect of surgical masks on the level of blood oxygenation. Considering our findings, this is the first clinical investigation reporting a decrease in blood O2 saturation and an increase in pulse rates of the surgeons after the operations due to surgical mask usage. »

  • 2005 BMJ Research « A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers » British Medical Journal – Open access https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2006372

« This study is the first RCT of cloth masks, and the results caution against the use of cloth masks. This is an important finding to inform occupational health and safety. Moisture retention, reuse of cloth masks and poor filtration may result in increased risk of infection. Further research is needed to inform the widespread use of cloth masks globally. However, as a precautionary measure, cloth masks should not be recommended for healthcare workers, particularly in high-risk situations, and guidelines need to be updated. »

  • 2005 Short Report – Journal of Hospital Infection « Protecting healthcare staff from severe acute respiratory syndrome: filtration capacity of multiple surgical masks” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15749326/

« If the virus is spread by airborne transmission, the likelihood that surgical masks will provide significant protection is dependent on the viral load required to cause infection and the degree of viral shedding by the patient(s). In conclusion, our data show that no combination of multiple surgical masks was able to meet the requirements for a respirator. If protection against airborne organisms is required, an N95 respirator or better should be used, as currently recommended by the CDC and WHO guidelines for SARS prevention. Multiple surgical masks will reduce the number of viruses inhaled, but whether the degree of reduction is sufficient to produce significant protection is unknown and cannot be predicted at present. »

  • 2001 Review – Anaesthesia and Intensive Care « Do Anaesthetists Need to Wear Surgical Masks in the Operating Theatre? A Literature Review with Evidence-Based Recommendations” https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11512642/

« …it has not been properly established that masks are effective in protecting the wearer from infection transmission. The available evidence indicates that, for the wearer, surgical masks offer incomplete protection from airborne bacteria and viruses. »

« Il n’a jamais été démontré que le port d’une bavette chirurgicale diminue le nombre des infections pariétales. Au contraire, on a même rapporté une diminution de 50% lorsqu’on ne les utilisait pas. La bavette joue un rôle de protection de l’équipe chirurgicale contre les infections portées par le sang éclaboussé en salle ou contre les infections aériennes, mais son effet sur la protection du patient n’a pas été prouvé lorsque l’équipe chirurgicale elle-même est en bonne santé. »

Rapports et actions des professionnels de la santé et citoyens:

« Le port du masque devient un obstacle à la communication pour tout le monde mais surtout pour certaines populations vulnérables dont les jeunes enfants en phase d’acquisition du langage. En tant qu’association professionnelle de logopédistes, spécialistes du langage et de la communication, nous recommandons vivement de limiter autant que possible le port du masque dans les structures d’accueil de jour de jeunes enfants. »

« De nombreux professionnels de santé et de l’enfance en France comme à l’étranger, ont alerté sur les répercussions des mesures sanitaires sur l’état de santé de la jeunesse. Ils ont rédigé de nombreuses tribunes, lettres ouvertes aux instances gouvernementales, et manifestes, faisant état des conséquences générées chez les enfants et soulignent notamment l’inutilité du port du masque, du fait de leur incapacité à le porter de façon adéquate. Des professionnels en psychologie, psychanalyse, pédiatrie et pédopsychiatrie dressent un constat alarmant également au sujet des impacts traumatiques de la politique sanitaire actuelle sur les enfants. »

« … les preuves scientifiques des effets toxiques sur la santé d’un excès de dioxyde de carbone (CO2) sont déjà largement suffisantes pour stopper le port systématique du masque, en particulier dans les écoles et pour les personnes âgées. »

« Selon le Professeur Beda Stadler, Professeur Emérite et directeur de l’institut d’immunologie médicale de l’Université de Berne, « La population est naïve de croire que c’est efficace car on sait que cette mesure n’évite qu’environ 1% des transmissions. »

« La fabrication des masques médicaux est bien antérieure à l’apparition du virus SARS-CoV-2. La conception de ces masques a été développée pour des utilisations intérieures en salles blanches comme les blocs opératoires ou pour pénétrer dans des chambres de patients infectés, et leur utilisation est réservée aux professionnels de la santé qui sont spécialement formés à manipuler correctement ces masques. »

« Par ailleurs, les enfants, dans une société qui surexpose les sujets d’actualité dramatiques et angoissants, n’ont pas la capacité des adultes à prendre du recul et à discerner correctement les informations auxquelles ils sont exposés. Les obliger collectivement à porter un masque sur le visage en toutes circonstances accentue le caractère anxiogène du climat dans lequel ils vivent déjà au quotidien depuis de nombreux mois. »

« Si les gains de certaines mesures spectaculaires sont très incertains en termes de santé publique, les dégâts sur nos conditions de travail et sur le bien-être de nos élèves sont, eux, très palpables. C’est la raison pour laquelle Action & Démocratie a décidé de s’associer en tant que partie civile à la plainte contre X déposée par l’association « Réaction 19 » et son avocat, Me Brusa. Cette plainte, très documentée, repose sur le concept d’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant, consacré par de nombreux traités internationaux don’t la valeur est bien supérieure à celle d’un décret, et démontre que le préjudice causé à l’enfant à qui l’on impose le port du masque dès l’âge de six ans est sans commune mesure avec l’hypothétique gain en matière de santé publique d’une telle mesure. Pour prendre connaissance de cette plainte et des arguments utilisés, cliquez ici. »

« Selon la convention internationale des droits de l’enfant, l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant doit toujours primer. Actuellement, nous pensons que les droits des enfants sont bafoués. Nous sommes très inquiets pour leur devenir.»

Articles de presse et blogs:

Vidéos et interviews

▶ Masque & Covid : Les explications d’un vrai scientifique et chercheur indépendant https://www.agoravox.tv/tribune-libre/article/masque-covid-les-explications-d-un-86602

▶ Dr Margarite Griesz-Brisson met en garde contre le port du masque : « La privation d’oxygène provoque des dommages neurologiques irréversibles »
https://covidinfos.org/2020/10/08/dr-margarite-griesz-brisson-met-en-garde-contre-le-port-dumasque-la-privation-doxygene-provoque-des-dommages-neurologiques-irreversibles/

▶ Pour en finir avec le masque en extérieur, le film
https://odysee.com/@ReactionCitoyenne:b/Pour-en-finir-avec-le-masque-en-exterieur:2

▶ Le devoir de porter un masque peut être un homicide par négligence !
https://www.7sky.life/fr/maskenpflicht-kann-fahrlaessige-koerperverletzung-sein/

▶ Le port obligatoire du masque pour les enfants, c’est de la maltraitance !
https://bit.ly/3c0hrv3

▶ Enfants, injustices et maltraitances.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rErAwgjK738

▶ Le masque : des professionnels de santé posent un autre regard.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJd06erDR0c&feature=youtu.be > CENSURE n’est plus disponible.

▶ Hyperventilation mécanique et masque sanitaire, hyperventilation, résistances émotionnelles, tensions et perte de rendement
https://respir.ch/blog/hyperventilation-mecanique-et-masque-sanitaire/

▶ L’importance de la bonne respiration
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yHpy9cG0UE&feature=youtu.be

▶ Le droit de respirer une évidence – Libérons les enfants !
https://odysee.com/@le-droit-de-respirer-une-evidence:b/le-droit-de-respirer-une-evidence-ep-1-:d

▶ ABE teste les masques, émission du 13 octobre 2020
https://pages.rts.ch/emissions/abe/test/11568823-masques-de-protection-test-defiabilite.html#11674819

« Nous sommes en train de créer une génération de personnes qui auront peur d’une existence normale. »
– Dr. Lee Merritt